According to Eusebius in his Church History, the initial Apostolic written documents were all destroyed by the Romans. Christians, desperately wanting to preserve a record of Jesus and the Apostles, went to Alexandria, Egypt to its world-famous Library which contained records from all over the world; there was also a Christian Church in Alexandria, which became the greatest of all the Early Christian Churches. One of the rewritten Christian documents was the Book of Revelation.
The Book of Revelation was attributed to John as the author, which everyone in this early period assumed the author is John of the Gospel of John, also rewritten and attributed to him as well. Scholars believe the original document originates from 81-96 CE, but there are no original texts; the earliest are papyri from the 3rd Century. It is in this context that we get a better understanding of what is happening.
In 72 CE the Jerusalem Temple of the Jews is destroyed. The Jews looked forward to a Last Days Messiah who would defend the Jews from their then Roman oppressors and rebuild their Temple. The Christians were multi-cultured, their Jewish converted portion eventually going extinct. They had no connection to a Temple other than ancestral religious origins. Yet, the Romans persecuted the Christians more than that done to the Jews. The Christians, likewise, were looking for a physical Jesus, than the Spiritual Jesus who failed to establish the Kingdom of God. Revelation was written along with other Apocalyptic literature all with the same message: Relief from persecution and establishment of a revolutionary Kingdom by a single leader.
Apocalyptic literature was had among the Egyptians for it had been played out historically with each succession and each Dynasty transition; all based upon their origin story of Osiris, Set, and Horus. Revelation has literary elements from these Egyptian documents and tales, confirming the Christian Scholar’s use of the Library of Alexandria. By the book’s timeframe context during the rule of Emperor Domitian, we get the intention and the audience of the author. In the first part of the book, 7 Churches in Asia, north of Jerusalem and not Alexandria, the source of authorship and the biggest Christian Center. Revelation’s apocalypse text implicates Asia as some of the attacking nations on Jerusalem, and these 7 Churches are chastised for wickedness. This leads to the theory that the author is from a rival Church wanting to diminish the authority of the Asian Churches, and very likely the Alexandrian Church, the earliest preserved documents being on papyri and containing Egyptian elements.
As Apocalyptic Literature, there are questions about the reality of prophecy and revelation of future events. There are no future names given, nor specific details or explanations of the future events. The Mark of the Beast in Revelation 13 has been assumed to be some kind of tattoo; such that people have interpreted any mark from any person, religion, or culture, such as the ash mark by Catholics for their Ash Wednesday, as the interpretation for this Mark of the Beast; but, in our day as we have Trump implicated in criminal and conspiratorial behavior who’s marketing tactic is to sell baseball caps with a mark on the front where the forehead would be to identify those loyal to him. The answer is: We will never know precisely which future event is to be the specific interpretation, unless we are also provided with the future date. The Book of Revelation gives us precise and specific future dates in chapter 12, such that, there is no question when the intended events are to take place and the place is then determined by the other signs that accompany the dates.
Thus, now that Revelation has been fulfilled as to the passing of the date and the identity of the location the rest of the interpretation of the apocalyptic text can now be turned into facts in a history book. Herein, is my commentary of the Book of Revelation in the days of its fulfillment.